Eriocephalus africanus (African Rosemary)
Plant image

Evergreen, attractive, fast-growing and aromatic small shrub up to 75cm high, with fine, soft, grey, heavily-scented leaves. Daisy-like white flowers from autumn to winter. A great addition to pot pouri and traditionally used in cooking.

Name & classification

Botanical name:
Eriocephalus africanus

Common names:
African Rosemary, Wild Rosemary (English); Wilderoosmaryn, Kapokbos (Afrikaans)

Plant family:
Asteraceae

Plant categories:
Shrubs; Non-herbaceous Perennials; Groundcovers


Name derivation & history:
The fluffy seed heads look like cotton wool or snow, which gave Eriocephalus the common name kapokbos in Afrikaans (Kapok refers to snow).

Pictures

Features

Leaf habit:
Evergreen

Height:
1 metre

Plant shape:
Along its wide distribution Eriocephalus africanus is very variable, especially when comparing plants growing in the salty air along the coast with those growing under much drier conditions inland. In general, they all form bushy evergreen shrubs up to 1 metre with a silvery, grey appearance.

Leaf description:
Looking at the leaves that are arranged in tufts along the branches, it is easy to see a number of features that help the plant to survive with little water. Special features include the grey leaf colour which reflects sunlight and thereby reduces leaf temperature. The minute, silvery hairs covering the leaves trap moisture and thus reduce transpiration. The small, needle-shaped leaves are another adaptation that limits water loss. The aromatic oils are also thought to help reduce water loss. Shrubs growing on the coast have succulent leaves, whereas those growing away from the coast have thinner, less succulent leaves.

Flower description:
Flowering times vary, but the best displays are in winter when the whole shrub is covered in small, white flowers. Typical of the family Asteraceae, the flowers are a composition of 2-3 showy white ray florets on the outside and purple disc florets in the centre.seed heads On warm days many bees are attracted to the flowers, seeking their small amounts of nectar.

Flower colour:
White with purple centre

Fruit description:
Soon after flowering, fruits are formed that are covered in long, white hairs. These attractive, fluffy seed heads look like cotton wool or snow, which gave Eriocephalus the common name kapokbos in Afrikaans. (Kapok refers to snow).

Habitat

Natural distribution:
Eriocephalus africanus is found throughout the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Namaqualand.

Habitat:
Eriocephalus africanus is found mostly on clay and granite slopes.

Water requirements:
Waterwise (little water required)

Frost tolerance:
Hardy

Light conditions:
Sun

Other Characteristics

Drought resistant
Wind resistant
Salt spray resistant
Has non-aggressive roots
Disease resistant
Pest resistant
Suitable for growing in containers
Low maintenance

Edibility & Toxicity

Edible leaves
We have no confirmation that any part of this plant is toxic, however we urge caution as this information may be incorrect.

Ecology

Attracts insects

Other information

Uses & Cultural aspects:
Wild rosemary has traditionally been used as a medicine for many ailments like coughs and colds, flatulence and colic, as a diuretic and a diaphoretic. A tea is usually made with 1 cup of boiling water and a sprig of wild rosemary.

In her book on indigenous herbs, Margaret Roberts mentions that wild rosemary seems to have similar qualities to ordinary rosemary as both have an invigorating effect on the skin and hair. She suggests boiling springs of wild rosemary (1 measure of twigs and flowers to 2 measures of water) for 15 minutes and when cooled to add it to the bath or to use as a hair growth stimulant and conditioner.

Wild rosemary can also be used for cooking, in sachets and pot-pourris.

Cultivation:
Eriocephalus prefers full sun and well drained soils. In the western Cape it is best to plant during the wet winter months so that the plants can establish themselves before the dry summer. Wild rosemary is fairly hardy and will grow in most gardens throughout the country.

Mass plantings of Eriocephalus flowering in winter are very beautiful, but they also make striking combinations in smaller groups planted with Aloe arborescens, Metalasia muricata (blombos) Coleonema album (confetti bush), Melianthus major (kruitjie-roer-my-nie) and restios. The shrubs can be pruned lightly to encourage bushy growth, to shape into a hedge or even a ball. The root system is well developed with a taproot that can penetrate the soil to a depth of 6 m, and lateral roots that extend about 2 m around the plant and are closer to the surface.

This extensive root system makes Eriocephalus africanus resistant to drought and able to recover from grazing by animals. New plants are easy to propagate from seed or cuttings. The seed may be sown in autumn or spring and germinates within 10 days. Eriocephalus roots easily from tip or heel cuttings taken in spring or autumn.

Notes:
In southern Africa there are 34 species of Eriocephalus, all with woolly fruits.

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